คำบุพบท (Prepositions and Adverbial Particles) ภาษาอังกฤษ

By | September 16, 2014

คำบุพบทมีบทบาทมากมายในเรื่องของไวยากรณ์ จึงสร้างความยุ่งยากให้แก่นักศึกษาต่างชาติมาก เพราะมีหลักเกณฑ์น้อยมากที่จะบอกว่าควรจะใช้คำบุพบทคำนี้และไม่ควรใช้คำบุพบทคำนั้นในบริบท (Context) หนึ่งๆ เนื่องจากไม่มีเหตุผลทางตรรกวิทยาที่จะถือเป็น กฎเกณฑ์เกี่ยวกับเรื่องนี้ได้ จะสังเกตได้จากสำนวนต่างๆ (Idioms) ซึ่งเป็นเรื่องที่เกี่ยวข้องกับคำบุพบทโดยตรงนั้นเป็นรูปเฉพาะของภาษาที่ขึ้นอยู่กับการใช้ (Usages) เป็นหลัก เช่น “get on” = to mount และ “get off” = to descend, etc. เราไม่มีคำตอบอย่างมีเหตุผลเลยว่า ทำไม “get on” จึงต้องแปลว่า “to mount” หรือ “get off” ถึงต้องแปลว่า “to descend” เป็นต้น

เรามีวิธีเดียวที่จะศึกษาสิ่งเหล่านี้ให้ได้ผลก็คือ มีพจนานุกรม (a dictionary) ที่ดีๆ สักเล่มและอ่านหนังสือให้มากๆ พร้อมกับมีสายตาที่แหลมคมคอยสังเกตและจดจำการใช้สำนวนต่างๆ ที่เขาใช้อยู่กันทั่วไปเท่านั้น

ฉะนั้น ในบทนี้จะเป็นการรวบรวมข้อสังเกตทั่วๆ ไปเกี่ยวกับการใช้คำบุพบท และให้ตัวอย่างการใช้คำบุพบทที่สำคัญๆ ซึ่งอาจจะก่อความยุ่งยากให้นักศึกษาได้

คำบุพบท (Prepositions)คือ คำที่ใช้กับคำนาม (Nouns) หรือคำเทียบเท่าคำนาม (Noun Equivalents) เพื่อแสดงความสัมพันธ์ของคำนามที่มีต่อคำอีกคำหนึ่งในประโยค เช่น The horse is in the stable.

คำบุพบท “in” แสดงความสัมพันธ์ระหว่าง “horse” และ “stable” และในเรื่องของไวยากรณ์แล้วจะถือว่า “stable” เป็น “กรรม” (Object) ของคำบุพบท “in” ซึ่งถ้าเป็นคำสรรพนาม (Pronouns) จะเห็นชัดเจนขึ้นว่าจะต้องใช้รูปกรรม (Objective Forms) ของคำสรรพนามนั้นๆ เช่น
He spoke to me. This came from him.
He wrote about them. I sit near her.

คำบุพบท (Prepositions) อาจเป็นคำเดี่ยว (Single Words) เช่น
at, after, down, since, with, etc. หรืออาจเป็นกลุ่มคำตั้งแต่ 2 คำขึ้นไป (Group prepositions) เช่น
He will come instead of me.
The teacher stood in front of the class.
He said that for the sake of peace.
Henry sat at the back of the room.
What did he say with regard to my proposals?

เกือบจะเป็นไปไม่ได้เลยที่จะบอกความหมายของคำบุพบทได้ทั้งหมดของคำ เพียงแต่บอกได้ว่ามันกำลังแสดงความหมายเกี่ยวกับ “สถานที่” (Places) หรือ “ทิศทาง” (Directions) เช่น
He works at the cotton factory.
The boys ran to school.

คำบุพบทหลักที่ใช้แสดงความหมายเกี่ยวกับ “สถานที่” (Places) มีดังนี้
about, above, across, against, along, among, at, by, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, down, from, in, inside, into, near, off, on, over, past, round, through, to, towards, under, underneath, up £ Group Prepositions (บุพบทกลุ่มคำ)
at the back, of, at the front of, at the side of, at the top of, at the bottom of, at the beginning of, at the end of, away from, far from, in front of, in the middle of, out of.

คำบุพบทหลายคำในกลุ่มที่แสดง “สถานที่” นี้อาจแสดงความหมายเกี่ยวกับ “เวลา” ก็ได้ เช่น
I shall see him at four o’clock.

คำบุพบทหลักที่ใช้แสดงความหมายเกี่ยวกับ “เวลา” มีดังนี้
about, after, at, by, before, between, during, for, from, in, on, since, till, through, throughout, to, at the end of, at the time of, in the middle of, in the midst of, down to, up to

โดยทั่วๆ ไปแล้ว “at, by, on” แสดง “จุดของเวลา” (a Point of time) เช่น
at six o’clock, by two o’clock, on Tuesday,
on the 15th of March.

คำบุพบท “after, before, by, in, since, till (until) แสดง “ช่วงของเวลา” (a Period of time) เช่น after Christmas, before Easter,
in the morning/afternoon/evening,
since five o’clock, until seven o’clock

คำบุพบท “for, during” แสดงถึง “ช่วงเวลาที่ผ่านไป” (Duration of time) เช่น
He has been working for three hours.
He became ill during the night.

คำบุพบท “to, in order to, so as to” “แสดง” วัตถุประสงค์” (Purpose) ซึ่งจะตามด้วย Infinitive แต่ถ้าใช้ “for” แสดง “วัตถุประสงค์” จะตามด้วย gerund เช่น
A hammer is used for knocking in nails.

หน้าที่ที่สำคัญอย่างหนึ่งของคำบุพบทก็คือ ร่วมประกอบกับคำนามหรือคำสรรพนามที่ตามมาข้างหลังมันในรูปของวลี (Phrases) ซึ่งเราเรียกว่า “Prepositional Phrases” และมักจะทำหน้าที่เป็น Adverbs เช่น
I looked through the window. (Place)
I shall go there on Friday. (Time)
He worked on a farm during the holidays. (Time)
He spoke in a loud voice. (Manner)

หรือทำหน้าที่เป็น Adjective ขยายคำนามที่อยู่ข้างหน้ามัน เช่น
The house with the big garden is Mr. Brown’s
That is the Tower of London
I received a letter from her.
I don’t like the sound of a jet engine.

คำบุพบทและคำกิริยาวิเศษณ์
(Prepositions and Adverbs)
ตามที่ได้กล่าวแล้ว ในเรื่องส่วนของคำพูด (Parts of Speech) ว่าคำต่างๆ ที่ใช้ในประโยคจะมีชื่อเรียกว่าเป็นคำอะไรจะต้องดูที่หน้าที่ของมันที่กำลังแสดงอยู่ ในประโยคนั้นๆ
ดังนั้น ขอให้พิจารณาประโยคต่อไปนี้
1) The boy came down the tree.         1) Mary is in the garden.
2) The tree blew down in the wind    2) I opened the door, and the cat walked in.
1) He put the book on the table.         1) Henry came before four o’clock.
2) Put your coat on.                                 2) I have explained that point before.

จะสังเกตเห็นได้อย่างชัดเจนว่า คำที่ขีดเส้นใต้ในประโยคที่ 1 และในประโยคที่ 2 มีหน้าที่ (Functions) ต่างกัน คำที่ขีดเส้นใต้ในประโยคที่ 1 ทุกคำจะมีหน้าที่เป็นคำบุพบท (Prepositions) ส่วนคำที่ขีดเส้นใต้ในประโยคที่ 2 ทุกคำทำหน้าที่เป็นคำกิริยาวิเศษณ์ (Adverbs)

คำสำนวน
(Idioms or Two-word Verbs or Phrasal Verbs)
คำสำนวน (Idioms) นั้นเป็นสิ่งที่ก่อความยุ่งยากให้แก่นักศึกษาต่างชาติมากเพราะมีวิธีศึกษามันได้โดยวิธีเดียว คือการจดจำรูปแบบของมันทั้งชุดไม่มีหลักไวยากรณ์ใดๆ ที่จะคิดประกอบได้

รูปแบบของคำสำนวน (Idioms) คือ V. + prep. และคำบุพบทนี้เองที่ทำให้ความหมายของคำกิริยาที่อยู่ข้างหน้าเปลี่ยนแปลงความหมายไปต่างๆ คำสำนวนส่วนใหญ่มักจะประกอบด้วย 2 คำ คือ V. + Prep. ฉะนั้นไวยากรณ์อเมริกันจึงเรียกว่า Two-word Verbs และนักไวยากรณ์บางท่านเรียกมันว่า Phrasal  Verbs

ตัวอย่าง คำสำนวนต่างๆ (Idioms)
I will put out the light.
This has taken up a lot of my time.
The boy accidentally knocked over the ornament.
Turn on the gas.
Take off your hat.

คำ “out, up, over, off, on” ถูกวางไว้หน้าคำนามหรือคำเทียบเท่านาม แต่มันอาจถูกนำไปวางไว้หลังคำนามหรือคำเทียบเท่าคำนามก็ได้ เช่น
I will put the light out.
This has taken a lot of my time up.
The boy accidentally knocked the ornament over.
Turn the gas on.
Take your hat off.

คำบุพบทที่ใช้ในกรณีข้างต้นนี้ มิได้แสดงความสัมพันธ์ระหว่างคำนามกับคำอื่นๆ ในประโยคเลย แต่มันทำหน้าที่ขยายคำกิริยาในประโยคอย่างแนบแน่น ความจริงแล้วคำสำนวน (Idioms) เหล่านี้สามารถใช้คำๆ เดียวแสดงความหมายแทนได้ เช่น
put out = extinguish ; take up = occupy
knock over = upset ; take off = remove

มีคำสำนวนเช่นนี้มากมายในภาษาอังกฤษ และคำกิริยาคำเดียวกันสามารถตามด้วยคำบุพบทได้หลายคำ ซึ่งทำให้คำกิริยาคำนั้นมีความหมายแตกต่างกันอีกหลายความหมาย เช่น
put down, put back, put forward, put in, put into, put up, put off, put on, put upon, put up with, put about, put across, put away, put by, put forth, put out, put round, put through, put together, make after, make at, make away with, make for, make from, make up, make off, make off with, make out, make out of, make over, make towards, make up for, make up to, etc.

สำนวนบางคำสามารถแปลตามตัวอักษรได้โดยการเก็บความหมายจากคำที่ประกอบกัน เช่น
Put the book up there
The ice was broken up by the ice-plough.

แต่คำสำนวนส่วนใหญ่ไม่สามารถแปลตามตัวอักษรได้จะต้องจดจำความหมายของมันเป็นกลุ่มๆ ไป เช่น
Can you put me up for the night. (= accommodate)
We have broken up for two weeks. (= classes have finished for a two weeks’ holiday).

บางครั้งอาจไปสับสนกับคำกิริยาบางคำที่ประกอบด้วยคำบุพบทที่ทำหน้าที่ขยายกิริยาเช่นกัน แต่ถือว่าเป็นคำๆ เดียวไม่สามารถเขียนแยกกันได้ ในลักษณะดังกล่าวนี้ จะสังเกตเห็นความแตกต่างได้อย่างชัดเจนว่า คำบุพบทจะวางไว้หน้าคำกิริยา เช่น outnumber, overlook, upset, withstand

ตำแหน่งที่อยู่ของคำบุพบท
(The Position of the Preposition)
ได้กล่าวแล้วว่า คำบุพบทนั้นปกติจะวางไว้ข้างหน้าคำนามหรือคำนามเทียบเท่าที่มันสัมพันธ์ด้วย เช่น
He spoke to me.
The football team is playing at Wembley.
He prevented me from speaking.

และคำบุพบทที่ทำหน้าที่เป็นกิริยาวิเศษณ์ (Adverbs) ขยายกิริยาข้างหน้ามันในรูปของ “สำนวน” (Idioms) อาจวางได้ 2 ตำแหน่ง คือ
1. อยู่หน้าคำนามหรือคำนามเทียบเท่า หรือ
2. อยู่ท้ายประโยค เช่น I put on my hat. หรือ I put my hat on.

หมายเหตุ  ถ้า “กรรม” (Object) ของมันเป็นคำสรรพนาม (Pronoun) มักจะวางไว้ตรงกลางระหว่างคำทั้งสองเช่น I put it on.

อย่างไรก็ดี ถ้ากรรม (Object) ของคำบุพบทเป็น Question Words ซึ่งต้องอยู่หน้าประโยคเสมอ คำบุพบทที่ใช้ในลักษณะเช่นนี้ (ส่วนใหญ่จะใช้ในภาษาพูด) จะต้องอยู่ท้ายประโยคเสมอ เช่น
Who (m) did you write to ?
What are you laughing at ?
Which class are you in ?

แต่ในกลุ่มชนอังกฤษยังมีผู้ถือโชคลางอยู่และถือว่าประโยคจะต้องไม่ลงท้ายด้วยคำบุพบท เมื่อเป็นเช่นนี้ พวกเขาจะพูดว่า
At what are you looking ? มากกว่าจะพูดว่า What are you looking at ?
I have a book in which to write my note มากกว่าจะพูดว่า I have a book to write my note in.

ด้วยเหตุผลดังกล่าวข้างต้น ทำให้ถือเป็นหลักปฏิบัติในงานเขียนแบบเป็นทางการทั่วไป โดยไม่วางคำบุพบท (Prepositions) ไว้ท้ายประโยค เช่น
He didn’t say to whom he gave the money. หรือ That is the book from which he got his information.

อย่างไรก็ดี คำบุพบท (Prepositions) จะต้องวางไว้ข้างท้ายประโยคในกรณีต่อไปนี้

1. ใน Adjective Clause ที่ใช้ “that” เป็นตัวเชื่อม (Relative) หรือใน Noun Clause ที่ใช้ “What” เป็นตัวเชื่อม (Relative) เช่น
This is the kind of life that he is used to.
It is a thing that I have dreamed of and worked for.
There is the book that I asked about.
This is what I was looking for.
That is not what he is used to.

แต่มีกลุ่มวลี (Phrases) อยู่ 2 กลุ่มซึ่งไม่สามารถเคลื่อนย้ายคำบุพบท (Prepositions) ได้ ดังนี้
I don’t know on whose authority you say that.
(ไม่ใช่ whose authority you say that on)
He doesn’t say by what reasoning he arrived at that conclusion.
(ไม่ใช่ what reasoning he arrived at that conclusion by.)

2. ในโครงสร้าง Passive Voice เช่น
Everything he said was laughed at.
He is a man whose word is relied on.
That is a subject that mustn’t be spoken about.

การแสดงการใช้ Prepositions ต่างๆ
ต่อไปนี้เป็นการแสดงการใช้คำบุพบทต่างๆ ในความหมายใหญ่ๆ ที่ใช้กันโดยทั่วไป และในลักษณะของรูปสำนวน (Idioms)

“about”
I want you to tell me about your work.
Can you recommend a good book about life in the sixteenth century?
I am thinking about you all the time you are away.
You ought to be certain about a matter before you speak of it.
I’ll see you at about six o’clock
That is all right for you but what about me?
What about that money you promised me?
No matter what we discuss, he knows all about it.
I wish I were as sure about any one thing as he is about every single thing.
I go about the country a good deal and have seen many things.
You will be warm enough if you move about.
Don’t rush about. Go slowly and quietly.
This is not screwed down firmly; it moves about when you touch it.
I don’t know much Spanish; just enough to find my way about in Spain.
There are a lot of men without work; they just stand about at street corners.
You are very untidy; you leave all your books lying about instead of putting them away.
Is Miss Smith anywhere about ?
He tried to order me about, but I soon tole him he was not my master.
There is about $ 20 difference between this car and that one.
Richard plays about in school instead of working.
The ship is about to leave.

“above”
We flew above the clouds.
You can just see our house above the trees.
Henry’s work is well above the everage.
He was above George in the examination list.
Brown’s business is not doing well; he is finding it difficult to keep his head above water. (= to remain solvent =ยังอยู่ในภาวะล้มละลาย)
William is above meanness. (=เขาไม่เคยใจแคบเลย)
There were above 100 people at the meeting.
In the above example, you can see the usage of “above”
That car cost above $ 2,000.
Think about what I have told you; but, above all, don’t breathe a word of it to Henry.

“across”
The tree had fallen down across the railway line.
Brown’s house is just across the road from us.
You cross a cheque by drawing two lines across it and writing/& Co./like this.
Unless there is a boat at the river edge you won’t be able to get across.
I ran across (= to meet unexpectedly = พบโดยบังเอิญ) our friend Smith yesterday.

“after”
I’ll see you after dinner.
I ran after the boy but couldn’t catch him.
They came to England after us. (= มาถึงหลังเรา)
Life is just one trouble after another.
He goes on day after day, week after week without any change.
You see I was right after all. (= แม้ว่าคุณจะพูดอะไรก็ตาม)
I came here at six o’clock and George came shortly after that.
I’ll try to pay you the money the week after next.
That’s no use, I want it the day after tomorrow at the latest.
If my wife goes away for a week, who’s going to look after me and the children ? {= ดูแล = to rake care)
Leave the work now; we can do it after.
I came here at six o’clock and George came shortly after.

“against”
He who is not for us is against us.
I am tempted to leave my work but I’m fighting against the temptation.
It is against the law to leave your car there.
He rested his bicycle against the wall.
I’ll do what you order me, but it is against my will.

“among” (amongst)
You can see my house among the trees.
I bought three hundred eggs and there was not a single bad one among them.
Livingstone spent many years among the peoples of Africa.
Shelley is among (= one of) the world’s greatest poets.
The Browns’ children are always quarrelling among themselves.
Share these sweets among the five children and see that each one gets a fair share.

ข้อสังเกต
“between” มักจะใช้กับคำนาม 2 คำ “among” ใช้กับคำนามมากกว่า 2 คำขึ้นไป เช่น
The sweets were divided between the two children.
แต่ประโยคต่อไปนี้มีข้อสังเกตไม่ค่อยชัดนัก
The tables in that restaurant are so close together that there’s hardly room to move between them.

“at”
I shall be at home tonight at any time you like to call
He lives at Torquay in Devon.
I’ll see you at school tomorrow at nine o’clock.
Begin at the beginning of the story.
Will he be at the meeting tonight ?
The boys threw a snowball at the old man.
The angry man shouted at the boys.
Henry’s remarks were so witty that everyone laughed at them.
Look at your books; don’t look at me.
You should knock at the door before entering the room.
I was surprised at the progress he had made.
He is very good at football.
The country was at peace then; now it is at war.
This was sold at 4 d. a pound, but that was really at a lose not at a profit.
I had my hair cut at the barber’s and bought a writting-pad at the stationer’s.
At the very most he can’t be more than eighteen years of age.
He is always at his best/worst when fighting against difficulties.
You might at least have sent me word that you were coming.
The Car went at full speed.
I don’t like to travel by car at night.
At any rate we know the worst now.
I will fight you one at a time, not two at a time.
You ought to hear at the latest by Friday.
At first sight I thought you were your brother.
This train stops at all stations.
Shakespeace died at the age of fifty-two.
At first it seemed very easy but it soon got more difficult.
He is at work on a new book.
I shall see you again at Christmas/at Easter.
Do what I tell you, at once !
We arrived at his house the next day.

ข้อสังเกต
1. “at” มักจะใช้กับเมืองเล็กๆ “in” มักจะใช้กับเมืองใหญ่ๆ เขตแดนใหญ่ๆ หรือประเทศ เช่น
He lives in London/Middlesex/England.

2. I shall see you on November 5th/on Sunday/on Christmas Day/at 3 o’clock, in the afternoon.

3. จงเปรียบเทียบกับประโยคต่อไปนี้
Throw the ball to John
Shout to him.

“before”
Come and see me tomorrow any time before five o’clock.
I met Smith yesterday, but I knew him long before that.
Before long you will find this work quite simple.
My appointment is not until 10.15; you go in before me.
That happened in 400 B.C (Before Christ)
I have been here before.
My family are coming here for a holiday, so I come two days before to make all arrangements.
The Headmaster congratulated the boy before the whole school.
William went and stood before the fire.

“behind”
The garage is behind the house.
He put his hand behind his back so that I couldn’t see what was in it.
Never say anything behind a person’s back that you wouldn’t say to his face.
He stood just behind me.
The train is behind time, (= is late.)
His ideas are all behind the time (= out of date – ล้าสมัย)
Two of the wounded soldiers couldn’t keep up with the rest of the men and fell behind.
Richard is a long way behind with his work.
There are two months behind with the rent.
He looked round the railway carriage before he got out to make sure he had not left anything behind.
ภรรยา (พูดกับสามีผู้ซึ่งพยายามอย่างงุ่มง่ามที่จะกลัดเสื้อให้เธอ มันเป็นเสื้อที่กลัดตะขอทางด้านหลัง)

“Hurry up; have you never hooked up a dress behind before 7″
(= เร็วๆ เข้าซิ คุณไม่เคยกลัดตะขอเสื้อข้างหลังมาก่อนรึ?)
สามี: “No; you never had a dress before that hooked behind.”
(= ไม่เคยน่ะซิ ก็คุณไม่เคยมีเสื้ออย่างนี้มาก่อนที่ต้องกลัดตะขอทางด้านหลัง)

“below”
The temperature today is below freezing point.
Sign your name below mine on this document.
In boxing it is a foul to hit below the belt.
The cost of the whole work was below $ 20.
Write your name in the space below.
From the Empire State Building we looked at New York below.
The sea is very rough and breaking over the deck; I thing I’ll go below.

“beneath”
The daffodils were growing beneath the trees.
He had two pillows beneath his head.
We climbed the hill; the valley lay beneath.

ข้อสังเกต “beneath” มักจะใช้ในลักษณะการอุปมาอุปมัยบ่อยๆ เช่น
What he said is beneath contempt.
Richard is far beneath Henry in intelligence.
She married rather beneath her. (= เธอแต่งงานกับคนที่มีฐานะทางสังคมต่ำกว่าเธอ)

“beside”
Go and sit beside Richard.
The man who spoke was standing just beside me.
The church at Stratford is beside the river.
He was beside himself with rage. (= เกือบบ้าแล้ว)
What you have said is quite beside the mark/point/question. (=ไม่เข้าประเด็น)

“besides”
There are many others besides me who disagree with what you say.
He think there is no one besides himself to be considered.

ข้อสังเกต “beside” = near by, at the side of = ใกล้ๆ หรือข้างๆ)
“besides” = in addition to = นอกเหนอจาก

“beyond”
The woods go for about two miles beyond (= further on than = ไกลกว่า) the river.
He lives in a small house, about four miles beyond Oxford.
The explanation you give is quite beyond me. (= ผมไม่เข้าใจมันเลย)
He is living beyond his means. (= ใช้เงินมากกว่าที่หามาได้)

“by”
Let us have a walk by the seashore.
Come and sit by me; there is plenty of room.
You go and sit by the side of George.
If you put those two books side by side you will see which is the bigger.
I did this work all by myself.
He often goes for long walks by himself.
Although he knows me quite well, he passed me by as if I were a complete stranger.
These things are made by machinery, not by hand.
I go by his office every day.
I know him by sight but not to speak to.
By this time next year you ought to have a very good knowledge of English.
This train is late; it ought to have been in by now. (= by this time = ในเวลานี้)
By next Friday I ought to have finished the job.
Multiply the amount by ten and then divide by three.
He earns his living by selling matches.
This little girl is afraid to cross the road; take her by the hand and see her across.
Did you come by train or by car (by land, by sea or by air) ?
I like motoring by day but not particularly by night.
What he said took me completely by surprise.
By the way, don’t forget our meeting next Wednesday.
He is going to Brussels by way of Dover and Ostend.
Don’t judge a man by his clothes.
You won’t do this all at once; do it little by little.
you must try to learn some of these things by heart.
He landed the aeroplane all right, but it was more by good luck than good management.
What do you mean by taking my hat.?
I’m sorry; I took it by mistake.
He is by far the best teacher I have ever had.
You must begin by learning a few simple rules-though you’ll probably end by taking no notice of any of them.
That music was composed by Beethoven.
The book I read was “David Copperfield,” by Charles Dickens.
These cigarettes are sold by weight, 4s. 6d. an ounce.
Sugar is sold by the pound, petrol by the gallon.
He is paid by the hour, so if it rains and he can’t work he gets no money.
He won the race by about two yards.
The pupils came into the classroom one by one.
I want a piece of paper 3 inches by 5 inches.
The house was struck by lightning.

ข้อสังเกต
1. “by” มักจะใช้บอก “ผู้กระทำ”
“with” ใช้บอก “เครื่องมือที่ใช้ในการกระทำ เช่น
The lock was opened by the thieves with a skeleton key.
The drawing was done by the artist with a very fine pen.

2. “by” แสดง “กำหนดของเวลาซึ่งบางสิ่งบางอย่างถูกกระทำในช่วงเวลานั้น”

“but” (= except = นอกจาก)
Who but Richard would have said such a thing?
I could answer all the questions but one.
There was nothing in the cupboard but a few biscuits.
Isn’t there anything but rolls and coffee for breakfast ?
I haven’t told this secret to anyone but you.
Mr. Brown lives in the next house but one to us.

“down”
Let us walk down the hill together.
The boy fell down the stairs and broke his arm.
I like to walk down Regent street and look at the shops there.
The sun goes down in the west.
The little girl has fallen down.
Richard wasn’t down for breakfast this morning until ten o’clock.
Get down off that wall; you can jump down.
The plane dropped down 5,000 feet into the sea.
We all knelt down in church.
I didn’t feel very well so I want to lie down.
I don’t like to look down from a great hight.
Sit down, there is plenty of room for every one.
I pushed the cork under the water but it wouldn’t stay down.
The arrangement for sending letters abroad seems to have broken down.
His house was burnt down last night.
The picture was printed upside down.
Write these notes down in your notebook.
A good many trees were cut down to build ships.
He insulted me so I knocked him down.
The sleeve of my coat is too short; I will ask the tailor to let it down an inch.
Your coat collar is turned up at the back; shall I turn it down.
The wind/fire/has died down.

“during”
He was Prime Minister during the year 1910-15 and during that time he had to deal with many difficult problems.

ข้อสังเกต
1. “during” หมายความว่า ดังนี้
(1.1) “ตลอดช่วงเวลาที่ผ่านไป’’ หรือ “ช่วงต่อเนื่องของเวลา” เช่น
The sun gives light during the day, the moon during the night.

(1.2) “ณ จุดหนึ่งของช่วงเวลานั้น” เช่น
I heard thunder several times during the night.
He was in the army during the war.

2. “during” จะไม่ใช้เมื่อความหมาย •’ช่วงเวลาที่ผ่านไป” ถูกแสดงด้วยจำนวนเวลาที่แน่,นอน แต่เราจะใช้ “for” เช่น
He went to America for (ไม่ใส่ during) three years.
During that time he studied American commercial practice. หรือจะพูดให้ง่ายขึ้นได้ว่า “during” เป็นคำตอบของคำถาม
when และ for เป็นคำตอบของคำถาม
How long เช่น “When were you there?” during the war.”
“How long were you there?” “For three years.”

“except”
We have lessons every day except Saturday and Sunday.
Everyone was present except Henry and me.
This essay is good except for the careless mistakes.
He is a good student except that he is occasionally careless.

“for”
That company has 10,000 men working for it.
It is time for our lesson to start.
This fresh air is very good for you.
This medicine is good for a cough.
Don’t wear that suit work in the garden; it is too good for such dirty work.
It’s a good thing for you that you live in England; in some countries you would have been shot for saying that.
I’ve no respect at all for him; he is a real good-for-nothing.
He doesn’t care for working at all.
He repeated the conversation that he had heard word for word.
The train for Liverpool leaves from No.6 platform.
I bought a car for $20; it was a real bargain.
You were lucky; I had to pay $150 for mine.
I don’t like this book that I borrowed; will you please change it for another one?
He is always looking for something for nothing.
I wouldn’t give away that ring for anything in the world, so once and for all don’t ask me again.
I think he is ill; send for the doctor.
If you don’t see what you want in our window, ask for it.
He who is not for us is against us.
I am all for helping people who really need it.
I have two cars, one for business and one for pleasure.
He was sent to prison for stealing.
John got a prize at school for English.
The accident happened because I couldn’t see for the fog.
I’m doing this for your sake, not for my own.
He didn’t do that for fear of punishment or for hope of reward but because he thought it was right.
William is big for his age.
It is very warm for the time of the year (for October).
I shall stay in London for about three weeks.
You can go for miles and miles in Scotland and see nothing but heather-covered hills.
He has worked for hours at that essay.
I think that is enough about this preposition for the present, (for the time being.)

ข้อสังเกต
1. “for” ใช้เมื่อ “ช่วงเวลาที่ผ่านไป” ถูกวัดเป็นจำนวนที่แน่นอน แต่ “since” ใช้บอก “จุดเวลาที่เริ่มต้นกระทำการ”

2. ในประโยคปฏิเสธที่แสดงเวลาในอนาคต (Future) “for” ใช้บอก “ช่วงของเวลา” แต่ “before” ใช้บอก “จุดของเวลา” เช่น
He will not be here for an hour yet.
He will not be here before seven o’clock.

“from”
This train starts from Plymouth and goes to London.
What country do you come from?
You can just see my house from here.
They walked from one end of the island to the other in three hours.
He read that book from beginning to end in an hour.

He works from morning to night without resting.
You must try to look at the matter from my point of view.
I grew those plants from seed.
The brothers are so alike I can’t tell one from the other.
Where did you get that idea from?
I am going away from home for about three months.
Are you going far from here?
I want to save you from making the mistake that I made.
They suffered terribly from cold and hunger.
Stop that boy from spoiling the book.
When I advise you to do this I am speaking from experience.
He never makes any provision for the future; he just lives from hand to mouth.
The plane rocked from side to side in the fierce wind.
The man went from door to door trying to sell brushes.
From time to time I will examine you on the work you have done.

“in”, “into”
I have twenty students in my class in this room.
Ottawa is in Canada.
He carried a bag in his hand.
I don’t think there is anything in that idea.
What news is there in the papers this morning?
He came on Monday at ten o’clock in the morning.
I read that in a book.
You will not easily find as good a workman as Brown; he is one in a thousand.
I am in trouble with my teacher over some careless work.
There were not many people at the meeting-about ten or twelve in number I should think.
I want you to arrange these in order, putting the largest first, then the next, and so on.
He spoke in a whisper.
He is the best student in my class.
She is the happiest woman in England.
He lives in London: I live at Watford.
I began work here in January in the year 1940.
The bird carried the worm in its beak.
I was right in the middle of the crowd and could see nothing.
Stand in front of me, you will see better then; there will be nothing in the way of your view.
I can never talk easily with him; we seem to have nothing in common.
Why are you in such a hurry?
If I were in your place I should wait for a time; it is in your own interest to do so.
Our preparations had to be made in secret but they were in time, and we are in readiness now for whatever happens.
We shall do it in some way or other; I’m not quite sure how.
To be in debt is to be in danger.
I’ll never see you in want of money while I have any.
In time of war we have to agree to things we should refuse in time of peace.
“A stitch in time saves nine” and “A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.” (สุภาษิต)
I will give you a new hat in place of the one that I damaged.
I am putting the matter in the hands of my lawyer.
In case of fire ring up Watford 999.
He is always in good health and is never in need of a doctor.
You have never been in love or you wouldn’t speak like that.
We are in sight of land now and will soon be in port.
You are in a bad temper this morning, aren’t you?
Tell me in one word (= in short = ย่อๆ) what you want.
The matter, in itself, is not important; in fact I was going to take no notice of it.
In reply to your letter I beg to inform you that in addition to what he owes you he is also in debt to me, and in all he about $3,000.
He walked into the room in which we were sitting.
He wouldn’t take advice, and now he has got into difficulties.
The tree trunk was sawn into small logs for burning.
Turn this from English into Spanish.
He is always getting into trouble owing to his carelessness; he is in trouble with his teacher now.
He felt in his pocket to see if he had any money in it.
Has the nine o’clock train come in yet?
Go in, don’t wait outside.
I want to, but I can’t get in
I don’t think I’ll go to the cinema; I want to stay in and read.
You must call in and see us sometime.
Is Mr. Smith in?
I’ve given you the lesson, but it will take some time for it to sink in.
A party of us are going to the theatre; would you like to join in?
The maid will take these plates away now and bring the pudding in (bring in the pudding).
Who took the letters in this morning (took in the letters)?
Here’s a hammer; will you knock this nail in (knock in this nail)?
I’ve put tea in the teapot; will you pour in the water (pour the water in)?
I’m packing my bag, but I can’t get all my clothes in.
The conductor on the bus helped the old lady in.
He opened the door and let the dog in and then locked him in.
I’ve opened the bag; put your stuff in.
If there is one thing I hate, it is filling in (หรือ filling up) income-tax forms.
The examination is over now; give in your papers to the examiner.
The train arrives in London at 6 o’clock.
We shall never give in. (= surrender = ยอมแพ้)
I shall be ready in five minutes.

ข้อสังเกต
1. “on”  ใช้กับวันต่างๆ (Days)
“at” ใช้กับจุดของเวลา (a point of time)
“in” ใช้กับส่วนของวัน (a portion of the day)

2. “at” ใช้กับสถานที่หมายถึงจุดๆ หนึ่งบนแผนที่
“in” ใช้กับสถานที่ หมายถึง เนื้อที่บริเวณกว้างๆ ดังนั้นจึงใช้กับเมืองใหญ่ๆ

3. “in” แสดงถึง “ตำแหน่งที่ตั้ง”
“into” แสดงถึง “การเคลื่อนที่”

4. เมื่อใช้บอกเวลา “in” แสดง “ใกล้จุดหมดช่วงของเวลา”
“within” แสดง “ไกลจุดหมดช่วงของเวลา”

“like”
It was just like him to say that.
I don’t feel like dancing. (= I don’t want to dance)
Don’t look at me like that.
I can’t speak Spanish like you. (= as you do)
Your shoes are just like mine.
There’s nothing like exercise for making you warm.
This stuff looks like gold; perhaps it is gold!

“near”

Mr. Thompson lives near me; his house is near the station.  ข้อสังเกต 
We are near the end of the story. “near” แสดงความหมาย “ใกล้ชิด” (proximity) 
Don’t go far away, stay somewhere near.
Henry is sitting near the window, next to John.  “next” แสดงความหมาย ‘‘ข้างหน้าหรือข้างหลัง” 

“of”
This box is made of wood.
My shoes are made of leather.
His house was built of brick.
He said he was going to make a singer of me, but I thought he was trying to make a fool of me as I knew I could never make a success of music.
We can’t get everything we want from life; we must just make the best of it.
Go and get me a pack of cigarettes.
That is a very good field of potatoes.
Get me a piece of wood, a pound of nails and a pot of paint.
I’ll give you half of what I earn, but I don’t get a lot of money.
I wish I could give you the whole of it.
Elizabeth is fond of going to dances.
Three of them attacked me.
The children of the poor were cared for.
The writing of that book took him ten years.
The doctor cured him of his illness.
The ship was wrecked within a mile of the coast.
That is a real work of art.
He gave me a piece of good advice.
Parliament consists of the House of Commons and the House of Lords.
It was a story of adventure and romance.
What is the advantage of doing this?
What is the cause of your bad temper?
He has travelled over the whole of England.
The city of Edinburgh has seen some strange scenes in its history and so has the Tower of London.
What did Mr. Brown die of?
Have you heard anything of Smith lately?
We often speak of him and think of him.
What do you think of this sonata of Beethoven’s?
You are sure of a good welcome at my house; we are fond of visitors.
I sat at the back of the room; the important people sat at the front of the room.
His name was at the top of the honour list; mine was at the bottom of it.
That was because I played instead of working.
In spite of his ill-health Johnson did very well.
It is very good of you to take so much trouble.
He is a friend of mine/ours/yours/John’s

“off”
Water was streaming off the roof.
Keep off the grass.
I can’t get this ring off my finger.
Turn off the main road here and you will come to the lake.
He took his hat and his coat off.
Is the gas on or off?
I picked up the box and the top fell off.
There is a little smell in the new cloth but it will soon wear off.
I had a headache this morning but it soon passed off.
He has a very good income. I wish I were as well off though I must say I am not so badly off as some people.
Lorenzo ran off with Shylock’s daughter and his money.
Shall we set off for our walk now?
I’ve studied music on and off (= at intervals = ชั่วครั้งชั่วคราว) for about twenty years.
That ship is two or three miles off; it won’t see us.
It’s time the children were off to bed.
I’ll come to the station to see you off. (= to see someone off = ไปส่ง)
His wealthy aunt disliked him so she cut him off with a shilling (= left him only a shilling in her will = ให้เขาเพียง 1 ชิลลิง ในพินัยกรรมของเธอ = ตัดเขาออกจากกองพินัยกรรม)
We finished off a very good dinner with coffee and cigarettes.
The judge let the prisoner off with a warning.
The gun went off unexpectedly.
That fellow is always showing off. (= he’s always thinking of the effect he is making = ขี้โม้, ขี้อวด)
I wish you would pay off this big debt.
He helped his wife off with her coat.
If you don’t pay this electricity account the company will cut your supply off.
Turn that tap off and switch the light off.
I thought I could get the agreement signed, but the whole business is definitely off now.

“on”
He put the book on the table and he sat on a chair
There were water colour on the walls of the room.
Put the stamp on your letter in the right hand corner.
He came on Tuesday.
I came on the 15th of May.
He had a new hat on his head, a new coat on his back, new gloves on his hands and a ring on his finger.
Vegetarians live on vegetables, fruit and nuts.
The war was fought on land, on sea and in the air.
Did you come here on foot ? No, I come on horseback.
The town is on the River Mersey, on the left bank.
There are shops on the both sides of the street.
We live on the north side of the city; they live on the south side.
I am planting the apple trees on the left and the pear trees on the right of the path.
What are your ideas on the subject ?
Could you give us a little speech on the subject ?
They are at Blackpool on holiday; I went on business.
The house is on fire. I think it was set on fire on purpose.
There are goods on sale in all the shop windows.
I thought I would sell my car but on second thoughts I changed my mind, and on the whole I think I was wise.
On the contrary I think you were unwise; prices may go up, but on the other hand, they are much more likely to go down.
On getting his telegrame I set off immediately for London.
What I do will depend on the help you can give me.
He shot the bird on the wing. (= ขณะที่มันกำลังบินอยู่)
On my honour, I did not do it.
Have you got your coat on and your hat on?
Did you leave the electric light on when you went out of the room ?
Is there anything good on at the cinema tonight ?
If I’ve nothing much on (= am not busy), I’ll go.
Time is getting on; it’s getting on for eleven o’ clock; we had better go home now.
My father is getting on in years /= growing old)-, he’s nearly seventy.
How are you getting on (= progressing) with your English ?
I don’t like Smith; I can’t get .on (= have friendly social relations) with him at all. No, he and I never go on together.
Come on; let’s go on (= continue) with these prepositions: if you keep on trying, you’ll master them.
Lookers-on see most of the game.
The train came on at about five o’ clock in the afternoon.
Help me on with my coat.
Switch the light on, please, and then turn the hot water on for my bath.
I’ll see you later on; I’m too busy now.
You are further on with the work than I had expected.
You carry on (= continue) with the work while I have a rest.
I had lunch on the train.

ข้อสังเกต
“on” ใช้กับวันต่างๆ (Days) หรือ
“on” ใช้กับวันที่ (Dates) พร้อมกับเดือน (Months) หรือ “on” ใช้กับส่วนเฉพาะของวัน (specified parts of days)
เช่น
on May 1st; on Wednesday; on Christmas Day; on Saturday afternoon (ลองเปรียบเทียบกับ “in” และ “at”)

“over”
The dog jumped over the table.
Someone left a box in the garden and I fell over it in the dark.
The aeroplane flow over the hourse.
Give me a blue sky over my head and a green road under my feet and I am happy.
An over coat is a garment that we wear over our other clothes.
More people have laughed over and cried over the books of Dickens than of perhaps any other writer.
English is being spoken all over the world.
You don’t need to pay back the money you borrowed, all at once; the repayment can be spread over a number of years.
Will you look over this exercise (หรือ look this exercise over) that I have done, and see if it is correct ?
I am sorry I over looked your letter.
There are over thirty people in this room.
I don’t want to make a decision at once; I will talk it over with my wife.
You came too late; the football match is all over. (= finished)
I tried to waken the man but he just turned over and went off to sleep again.
He said that he felt so strong he could push a house over.
I know a visit to the dentish is unpleasent; but come along, let’s get it over.
If you will come to our factory I shall be very glad to show you over it.
His work was done so badly that I told him to do it over again.
I have told you over and over again not to make that mistake.
I gave the children two apples each and I had three left over.
You will get $50 a year over and above your usual salary.
He is just getting over his severe illness.

ข้อสังเกต “over” จะใช้กับสำกิริยาบางคำโดยวางไว้ข้างหน้าคำกิริยานั้นในฐานะคำขยายและเขียนติดเป็นคำเดียวกัน เช่น overlook, overturn, overflow, overeat, overload, overpower, overtake, etc.

“Past”
He walked past the door.
The door was open when I walked past.
It is past three o’clock; it is nearly a quarter past.
The situation is past (= beyond) hope/cure/control/belief.

“round”
Drake sailed round the world in 1577-80.
The earth moves round the sun.
Would you like to walk round my garden ?
Come into my garden and walk round.

“Since”
He has lived in England since 1949
He came to England in 1949 and has been here ever since.
They had waited since four o’clock.
Things have changed very much since the last time I wrote to you.
The church was destroyed by the bombing in 1940 but has since been rebuilt (หรือ has been rebuilt since)

ข้อสังเกต “since” ใช้บอก •จุดเริ่มต้นของเวลา” ลองเปรียบเทียบกับ “for” ซึ่งใช้บอก “ช่วงของเวลาซึ่งนับเป็นจำนวนแน่นอน” “since” ใช้กับช่วงเวลาทั้งหมดจากจดเริ่มต้นในอดีต จนถึงจุดเวลาในปัจจุบันหรือจุดเวลาในอดีต ดังนั้นมันมักจะใช้กับ Perfect Tense เสมอ

“through”
The ball went through the window.
The river flows through the town.
We walked through the village.
Go through น examine) these papers carefully
I saw through (= was not deceived by = ไม่ถูกหลอก), his trick.
George has got through (= passedI his examination.
He worked all through his holidays.
It was through f= owing to) Fred’s carelessness that the money was lost.
The street is thronged with people; do you think we can get through ?
The soldiers were surrounded by the enemy but managed to break through.
Your clothes are wet through with the rain.
He got that job through (= by the help of) his uncle.

ข้อสังเกต “through” ให้ความหมายในมิติที่กว้างขวางกว่า “across” เช่น
He walked across the fields and through the woods.

“to”
I am going to America on Friday.
I have already sent my luggest to the station.
Come on, children; time to go to bed and go to sleep.
Does this road go to Edinburgh ?
That coat is quite wet; hold it to the fire a few minutes.
He looks to me for help.
It is now five minutes to six.
He read the book from beginning to end.
Will you lend your book to George, please ?
Did you send that letter to him ?
I prefer this book to that one.
This one is superior to that.
You can’t compare this to that.
He’s a very wealthy man; a few hundred pounds is nothing to him.
You must set to work on that job as soon as possible.
I offered him money for the use of the bicycle, but to my surprise he refused it.
Is that tea quite to your taste or do you need more sugar ?
No more sugar, thank you; it is exactly to my liking.
I live quite close to the church; in fact next door to it.
According to you there is nothing more to be done.
Don’t talk all round the question; come to the point.
You will soon get used to his way of speaking.
Let’s drink to his success.

“towards”
A plane crossed the coast flying towards London.
I’ll pay you something towards what I owe you.
He has never shown a really friendly spirit towards George.
That is the first step towards getting the matter cleared up.
It was somewhere towards five o’clock when he came.

ข้อสังเกต “towards” แสดง “ทิศทาง’’ แต่มิได้แสดง “การไปถึงยังสถานที่หนึ่งๆ’’ ลองเปรียบเทียบประโยกต่อไปนี้
He went to London yesterday.
The aeroplane flew towards the sun.

“under”
Don’t stand under (underneath) a tree during a thunderstorm.
He doesn’t owe very much; it’s under $ 10.
It is raining heavily; come under my umbrella.
I can’t use my office at present; it is under repair.
You can’t sign that; you are under age. (=not twenty-one)
I did that under orders.
I came to Piccadilly Circus by Underground.
I have underlined all your mistakes.
Under (in) the circumstances I will not give you any extra work.
When Lord X goes abroad he travels under the name of Mr. Brown.
Here is a tree that we can shelter under.
The coat will be $ 2 or under.
In the struggle for life the weakest go under (= fail หรือ die)
I like beef underdone rather than overdone.
It was very late when I got to bed last night and I feel very much underslept  this morning.

“until, till”
He waited till (until) all the students were quiet before he began the lesson.
I shan’t see you now till Friday.

ข้อสังเกต
1. ในประโยคที่ 1 “till” และ “until” ใช้เป็น Conjunction ได้ด้วย
2. มีความแตกต่างเล็กน้อยในการใช้ “Till” และ “Until” ดังนี้
ถ้าใช้ขึ้นต้นประโยค มักจะใช้คำ “Until” มากกว่าคำ “till” แต่ในภาษาพูดมักจะใช้ “till”

“up”
He ran quickly up the ladder.
They walked up the hill to their house.
Is the lift going up or down ?
I was up at five o’clock this morning
Wake up; it’s seven o’clock and time to get up.
Hang your hat up there,
My friend was very ill; I sat up all night with him; my brother will stay up tomorrow night with him.
The soldiers blew up the bridge.
Hurry up or you will be late.
Will you break up this wood for the fire, please ?
You walk far too fast; I can’t keep up with you.
That stream never dries up even in the middle of summer.
I’ve dropped my book; will you please pick it up for me ?
There are a lot of weeds in my garden; I’m going to pull them up.
Put your hands up or I shoot !
Cover up the food or the dust will get on it.
You go on; I’ll soon catch you up.
Cut up the meat for little Margaret; she can’t use a knife and fork very well yet.
If you can’t do the puzzle at first don’t give it up; you will do it in time if you try.
You have worked very well so far; keep it up.
You could see there was someone at home, the house was all lit up.
You ought to lock up these jewels in a strong room.
Some girls take longer to make up her minds than to make up their face.
I can’t buy that car just yet but I’m saving up for it.
He was very angry and tore up the letter.
Tie up the dog; he might attack Smith’s cat.
After dinner Susan washes up (the dishes)
John has made up a little song.
Who has used up all my toothpaste ?
Henry’s parents died when he was young and his aunt brought him up. (= to take care of someone)
Ring me up some time tomorrow. (= to telephone)
You have got the story all mixed up.
He turned the box upside down.
It’s up to you (ภาษาพูดใช้ “It is your duty”) to do your best.
What are you up to ? (ภาษาพูดใช้ “What are you doing ?” ปกติมักจะใช้พร้อมกับคำแนะนำเมื่อมีอะไรบางอย่างผิดปกติ)
I know you are up to no good.
What’s up ? (ภาษาพูดหรือสะแลงใช้ “What’s the matter?”)
Time’s up t- you have no more time now.)

“with”
Can you come and stay with me for a time, and bring your wife with you.
Have you all brought the books with you?
Leave your coats and hats with the attendant.
He has been with that firm for a long time now.
Compare this cheese with that and you will see the difference.
The box of eggs was marked “With Care”.
It’s with great pleasure that I give you the prize.
Orders for the new car came in with a rush.
He went away with a smile and a song.
The tide came in with great speed.
With all his faults he was a kind-hearted fellow.
I hope he hasn’t met with an accident.
A man with plenty of money has plenty of friends.
He walked along with his hat on the back of his head.
Sleep with your window open but with your mouth shut.
I’ve brought my brother along with me to help.
With regard to that business we spoke about, if you going on with it I can perhaps help you.
I see with my eyes, hear with my ears and smell with my nose.
Her eyes were filled with tears and she was trembling with cold.
I am not at all satisfied with your work.
The cushion is filled with feathers.
Do you think this red tie goes with my blue suit?
You are always finding fault with everything I do.
I don’t agree with you at all about that.
Romeo was deeply in love with Juliet.
He has quarrelled with George.
I don’t know why he fell out (= quarreled) with him but I hope he will soon make friends with him again.
I have no patience with you; you are so stupid.
He went so fast I couldn’t keep up with him. (= to catch)
How is he getting on with the book that he is writing?
What’s the matter with you? You don’t look very well.
It’s nothing to do with you what I say.
I don’t get on very well with George; you see, I have nothing in common with him.
If you have any cabbage plants to spare I could do with (=could use) about fifty.
I’m just using this spade, but you can have it when I’ve done with it. (= have used it.)
I’m not arguing with you, I’m telling you.
He is content with very little.
In 1066 the English fought a great battle with the Normans.
In 1805 England was at was with France.

“Within”
you must try to live within your income.
He lives within five miles of London.
Shout if you want me; I shall be within hearing.
The house was painted green without and within.
I shall be back again within a year.

“Without”
He always goes about without a hat on.
That was done without my hope, without my knowledge and without my consent.
I will do this job for you without fail (= for certain) by tomorrow.
You have been warned times without number about the danger and still you don’t take any notice.
He is, without exception, the best pupil I have ever had.
I can say that without fear of contradiction.
You haven’t time to pack all those clothes ; you will have to go without them.
Can you get into the room without breaking the lock?
“You can’t have omelettes without breaking eggs.” (สุภาษิต)
I’ve gone without food for two days now.
I’ve gone without eating for two days now.
If we can’t afford a new car, we shall have to do without it.
But a car is something I can’t do without.
Of course I know you will work hard; that goes without saying.
They left the party without so much as saying goodbye.

ที่มา:อาจารย์ชำนาญ  ศุภนิตย์, ดร.สัญญา  จัตตานนท์, อาจารย์สุทิน  พูลสวัสดิ์

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